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Westminster Larger Catechism - Section 2

Having Seen What The Scriptures Principally Teach Us To Believe Concerning God, It Follows To Consider What They Require As The Duty of Man

Q. 91. What is the duty which God requireth of man? A. The duty which God requireth of man, is obedience to his revealed will.[n]

[n] Rom. 12:1,2. Micah 6:8. 1 Sam. 15:22.

Q. 92. What did God at first reveal unto man as the rule of his obedience? A. The rule of obedience revealed to Adam in the estate of innocence, and to all mankind in him, besides a special command not to eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, was the moral law.[o]

[o] Gen. 1:26,27. Rom. 2:14,15. Rom. 10:5. Gen. 2:17.

Q. 93. What is the moral law? A. The moral law is the declaration of the will of God to mankind, directing and binding every one to personal, perfect, and perpetual conformity and obedience thereunto, in the frame and disposition of the whole man, soul and body,[p] and in performance of all those duties of holiness and righteousness which he oweth to God and man[q] promising life upon the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the breach of it.[r]

[p] Deut. 5:1-3,31,33. Luke 10:26,27. Gal. 3:10. 1 Thess. 5:23. [q] Luke 1:75. Acts 24:16. [r] Rom. 10:5. Gal. 3:10,12.

Q. 94. Is there any use of the moral law to man since the fall? A. Although no man, since the fall, can attain to righteousness and life by the moral law;[s] yet there is great use thereof, as well common to all men, as peculiar either to the unregenerate, or the regenerate.[t]

[s] Rom. 8:3. Gal. 2:16. [t] 1 Tim. 1:8.

Q. 95. Of what use is the moral law to all men? A. The moral law is of use to all men, to inform them of the holy nature and will of God,[v] and of their duty, binding them to walk accordingly;[w] to convince them of their disability to keep it, and of the sinful pollution of their nature, hearts, and lives:[x] to humble them in the sense of their sin and misery,[y] and thereby help them to a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ,[z] and of the perfection of his obedience.[a]

[v] Lev. 11:44,45. Lev. 20:7,8. Rom. 7:12. [w] Micah 6:8. James 2:10,11. [x] Ps. 19:11,12. Rom. 3:20. Rom. 7:7. [y] Rom. 3:9,23. [z] Gal. 3:21,22. [a] Rom. 10:4.

Q. 96. What particular use is there of the moral law to unregenerate men? A. The moral law is of use to unregenerate men, to awaken their consciences to flee from wrath to come,[b] and to drive them to Christ;[c] or, upon their continuance in the estate and way of sin, to leave them inexcusable,[d] and under the curse thereof.[e]

[b] 1 Tim. 1:9,10. [c] Gal. 3:24. [d] Rom. 1:20 compared with Rom. 2:15. [e] Gal. 3:10.

Q. 97. What special use is there of the moral law to the regenerate? A. Although they that are regenerate, and believe in Christ, be delivered from the moral law as a covenant of works,[f] so as thereby they are neither justified[g] nor condemned;[h] yet, besides the general uses thereof common to them with all men, it is of special use, to shew them how much they are bound to Christ for his fulfilling it, and enduring the curse thereof in their stead, and for their good;[i] and thereby to provoke them to more thankfulness,[k] and to express the same in their greater care to conform themselves thereunto as the rule of their obedience.[l]

[f] Rom. 6:14. Rom. 7:4,6. Gal. 4:4,5. [g] Rom. 3:20. [h] Gal. 5:23. Rom. 8:1. [i] Rom. 7:24,25. Gal. 3:13,14. Rom. 8:3,4. [k] Luke 1:68,69,74,75. Col. 1:12-14. [l] Rom. 7:22. Rom. 12:2. Tit. 2:11-14.

Q. 98. Where is the moral law summarily comprehended? A. The moral law is summarily comprehended in the ten commandments, which were delivered by the voice of God upon mount Sinai, and written by him in two tables of stone;[m] and are recorded in the twentieth chapter of Exodus. The four first commandments containing our duty to God, and the other six our duty to man.[n]

[m] Deut. 10:4. Exod. 34:1-4. [n] Matt. 22:37-40.

Q. 99. What rules are to be observed for the right understanding of the ten commandments? A. For the right understanding of the ten commandments, these rules are to be observed: 1. That the law is perfect, and bindeth every one to full conformity in the whole man unto the righteousness thereof, and unto entire obedience for ever; so as to require the utmost perfection of every duty, and to forbid the least degree of every sin.[o]

[o] Ps. 19:7. James 2:10. Matt. 5:21,22. 2. That it is spiritual, and so reacheth the understanding, will, affections, and all other powers of the soul; as well as words, works, and gestures.[p]

[p] Rom. 7:14. Deut. 6:5 compared with Matt. 22:37-39. Matt. 5:21,22,27,28,33,34,37-39,43,44. 3. That one and the same thing, in divers respects, is required or forbidden in several commandments.[q]

[q] Col. 3:5. Amos 8:5. Prov. 1:19. 1 Tim. 6:10. 4. That as, where a duty is commanded, the contrary sin is forbidden;[r] and, where a sin is forbidden, the contrary duty is commanded:[s] so, where a promise is annexed, the contrary threatening is included;[t] and, where a threatening is annexed, the contrary promise is included.[v]

[r] Isa. 58:13. Deut. 6:13 compared with Matt. 4:9,10. Matt. 15:4-6. [s] Matt. 5:21,22-25. Eph. 4:28. [t] Exod. 20:12 compared with Prov. 30:17. [v] Jer. 18:7,8. Exod. 20:7 compared with Ps. 15:1,4,5 and with Ps. 24:4,5. 5.That what God forbids, is at no time to be done;[w] what he commands, is always our duty;[x] and yet every particular duty is not to be done at all times.[y]

[w] Job 13:7,8. Rom. 3:8. Job 36:21. Heb. 11:25. [x] Deut. 4:8,9. [y] Matt. 12:7. 6. That under one sin or duty, all of the same kind are forbidden or commanded; together with all the causes, means, occasions, and appearances thereof, and provocations thereunto.[z]

[z] Matt. 5:21,22,27,28. Matt. 15:4-6. Heb. 10:24,25. 1 Thess. 5:22. Jude 23. Gal. 5:26. Col. 3:21. 7. That what is forbidden or commanded to ourselves, we are bound, according to our places, to endeavour that it may be avoided or performed by others, according to the duty of their places.[a]

[a] Exod. 20:10. Lev. 19:17. Gen. 18:19. Josh. 24:15. Deut. 6:6,7. 8. That in what is commanded to others, we are bound, according to our places and callings, to be helpful to them;[b] and to take heed of partaking with others in what is forbidden them.[c]

[b] 2 Cor. 1:24. [c] 1 Tim. 5:22. Eph. 5:11.

Q. 100. What special things are we to consider in the ten commandments? A. We are to consider, in the ten commandments, the preface, the substance of the commandments themselves, and several reasons annexed to some of them, the more to enforce them.

Q. 101. What is the preface to the ten commandments? A. The preface to the ten commandments is contained in these words, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.[d] Wherein God manifesteth his sovereignty, as being JEHOVAH, the eternal, immutable, and almighty God;[e] having his being in and of himself,[f] and giving being to all his words[g] and works:[h] and that he is a God in covenant, as with Israel of old, so with all his people;[i] who, as he brought them out of their bondage in Egypt, so he delivereth us from our spiritual thraldom;[k] and that therefore we are bound to take him for our God alone, and to keep all his commandments.[l]

[d] Exod. 20:2. [e] Isa. 44:6. [f] Exod. 3:14. [g] Exod. 6:3. [h] Acts 17:24,28. [i] Gen. 17:7 compared with Rom. 3:29. [k] Luke 1:74,75. [l] 1 Pet. 1:15-18. Lev. 18:30. Lev. 19:37.

Q. 102. What is the sum of the four commandments which contain our duty to God? A. The sum of the four commandments containing our duty to God, is, to love the Lord our God with all our heart, and with all our soul, and with all our strength, and with all our mind.[m]

[m] Luke 10:27.

Q. 103. Which is the first commandment? A. The first commandment is, Thou shalt have no other gods before me.[n]

[n] Exod. 20:3.

Q. 104. What are the duties required in the first commandment? A. The duties required in the first commandment are, the knowing and acknowledging of God to be the only true God, and our God;[o] and to worship and glorify him accordingly,[p] by thinking,[q] meditating,[r] remembering,[s] highly esteeming,[t] honouring,[v] adoring,[w] choosing,[x] loving,[y] desiring,[z] fearing of him;[a] believing him;[b] trusting,[c] hoping,[d] delighting,[e] rejoicing in him;[f] being zealous for him;[g] calling upon him, giving all praise and thanks,[h] and yielding all obedience and submission to him with the whole man;[i] being careful in all things to please him,[k] and sorrowful when in any thing he is offended;[l] and walking humbly with him.[m]

[o] 1 Chron. 28:9. Deut. 26:17. Isa. 43:10. Jer. 14:22. [p] Ps. 95:6,7. Matt. 4:10. Ps. 29:2. [q] Mal. 3:16. [r] Ps. 63:6. [s] Eccl. 12:1. [t] Ps. 71:19. [v] Mal. 1:6. [w] Isa. 45:23. [x] Josh. 24:15,22. [y] Deut. 6:5. [z] Ps. 73:25. [a] Isa. 8:13. [b] Exod. 14:31. [c] Isa. 26:4. [d] Ps. 130:7. [e] Ps. 37:4. [f] Ps. 32:11. [g] Rom. 12:11 compared with Num. 25:11. [h] Phil. 4:6. [i] Jer. 7:23. James 4:7. [k] 1 John 3:22. [l] Jer. 31:18. Ps. 119:136. [m] Micah 6:8.

Q. 105. What are the sins forbidden in the first commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the first commandment, are, Atheism, in denying or not having a God;[n] Idolatry, in having or worshipping more gods than one, or any with or instead of the true God;[o] the not having and avouching him for God, and our God;[p] the omission or neglect of any thing due to him, required in this commandment;[q] ignorance,[r] forgetfulness,[s] misapprehensions,[t] false opinions,[v] unworthy and wicked thoughts of him;[w] bold and curious searching into his secrets;[x] all profaneness,[y] hatred of God;[z] self-love,[a] selfseeking,[b] and all other inordinate and immoderate setting of our mind, will, or affections upon other things, and taking them off from him in whole or in part;[c] vain credulity,[d] unbelief,[e] heresy,[f] misbelief,[g] distrust,[h] despair,[i] incorrigibleness,[k] and insensibleness under judgments,[l] hardness of heart,[m] pride,[n] presumption,[o] carnal security,[p] tempting of God;[q] using unlawful means,[r] and trusting in unlawful means;[s] carnal delights and joys;[t] corrupt, blind, and indiscreet zeal;[v] lukewarmness,[w] and deadness in the things of God;[x] estranging ourselves, and apostatizing from God;[y] praying, or giving any religious worship, to saints, angels, or any other creatures;[z] all compacts and consulting with the devil,[a] and hearkening to his suggestions;[b] making men the lords of our faith and conscience;[c] slighting and despising God and his commands;[d] resisting and grieving of his Spirit,[e] discontent and impatience at his dispensations, charging him foolishly for the evils he inflicts on us;[f] and ascribing the praise of any good we either are, have, or can do, to fortune,[g] idols,[h] ourselves,[i] or any other creature.[k]

[a] Ps. 14:1. Eph. 2:12. [n] Jer. 2:27,28 compared with 1 Thess. 1:9. [o] Ps. 81:11. [p] Isa. 43:22-24. [q] Jer. 4:22. Hos. 4:1,6. [r] Jer. 2:32. [s] Acts 17:23,29. [t] Isa. 40:18. [v] Ps. 50:21. [x] Deut. 29:29. [y] Tit. 1:16. Heb. 12:16. [z] Rom. 1:30. [a] 2 Tim. 3:2. [b] Phil. 2:21. [c] 1 John 2:15,16. 1 Sam. 2:29. Col. 3:2,5. [d] 1 John 4:1. [e] Heb. 3:12. [f] Gal. 5:20. Tit. 3:10. [g] Acts 26:9. [h] Ps. 78:22. [i] Gen. 4:13. [k] Jer. 5:3. [l] Isa. 42:25. [m] Rom. 2:5. [n] Jer. 13:15. [o] Ps. 19:13. [p] Zeph. 1:12. [q] Matt. 4:7. [r] Rom. 3:8. [s] Jer. 17:5. [t] 2 Tim. 3:4. [v] Gal. 4:17. John 16:2. Rom. 10:2. Luke 9:54,55. [w] Rev. 3:16. [x] Rev. 3:1. [y] Ezek. 14:5. Isa. 1:4,5. [z] Rom. 10:13,14. Hos. 4:12. Acts 10:25,26. Rev. 19:10. Matt. 4:10. Col. 2:18. Rom. 1:25. [a] Lev. 20:6. 1 Sam. 28:7,11 compared with 1 Chron. 10:13,14. [b] Acts 5:3. [c] 2 Cor. 1:24. Matt. 23:9. [d] Deut. 32:15. 2 Sam. 12:9. Prov. 13:13. [e] Acts 7:51. Eph. 4:30. [f] Ps. 73:2,3,13-15,22. Job 1:22. [g] 1 Sam. 6:7-9. [h] Dan. 5:23. [i] Deut. 8:17. Dan. 4:30. [k] Hab. 1:16.

Q. 106. What are we especially taught by these words [before me] in the first comandment? A. These words [before me] or before my face, in the first commandment, teach us, that God, who seeth all things, taketh special notice of, and is much displeased with, the sin of having any other God: that so it may be an argument to dissuade from it, and to aggravate it as a most impudent provocation:[l] as also to persuade us to do as in his sight, whatever we do in his service.[m]

[l] Ezek. 8:5-18. Ps. 44:20,21. [m] 1 Chron. 28:9.

Q. 107. Which is the second commandment? A. The second commandment is, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.[n]

[n] Exod. 20:4-6.

Q. 108. What are the duties required in the second commandment? A. The duties required in the second commandment are, the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious worship and ordinances as God hath instituted in his word;[o] particularly prayer and thanksgiving in the name of Christ;[p] the reading, preaching, and hearing of the word;[q] the administration and receiving of the sacraments;[r] church government and discipline;[s] the ministry and maintainance thereof;[t] religious fasting;[v] swearing by the name of God,[w] and vowing unto him:[x] as also the disapproving, detesting, opposing, all false worship;[y] and, according to each one’s place and calling, removing it, and all monuments of idolatry.[z]

[o] Deut. 32:46,47. Matt. 28:20. Acts 2:42. 1 Tim. 6:13,14. [p] Phil. 4:6. Eph. 5:20. [q] Deut. 17:18,19. Acts 15:21. 2 Tim. 4:2. James 1:21,22. Acts 10:33. [r] Matt. 28:19. 1 Cor. 11:23-30. [s] Matt. 18:15-17. Matt. 16:19. 1 Cor. 5. 1 Cor. 12:28. [t] Eph. 4:11,12. 1 Tim. 5:17,18. 1 Cor. 9:7-15. [v] Joel 2:12,13. 1 Cor. 7:5. [w] Deut. 6:13. [x] Isa. 19:21. Ps. 76:11. [y] Acts 17:16,17. Ps. 16:4. [z] Deut. 7:5. Isa. 30:22.

Q. 109. What are the sins forbidden in the second commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the second commandment are, all devising,[a] counselling,[b] commanding,[c] using,[d] and any wise approving, any religious worship not instituted by God himself;[e] tolerating a false religion;[f] the making any representation of God, of all or of any of the three persons, either inwardly in our mind, or outwardly in any kind of image or likeness of any creature whatsoever;[g] all worshipping of it,[h] or God in it or by it;[i] the making of any representation of feigned deities,[k] and all worship of them, or service belonging to them;[l] all superstitious devices,[m] corrupting the worship of God,[n] adding to it, or taking from it,[o] whether invented and taken up of ourselves,[p] or received by tradition from others,[q] though under the title of antiquity,[r] customs,[s] devotion,[t] good intent, or any other pretence whatsoever;[v] simony;[w] sacrilege;[x] all neglect,[y] contempt,[z] hindering,[a] and opposing the worship and ordinances which God hath appointed.[b]

[a] Num. 15:39. [b] Deut. 13:6-8. [c] Hos. 5:11. Micah 6:16. [d] 1 Kings 11:33. 1 Kings 12:33. [e] Deut. 12:30-32. [f] Deut. 13:6-12. Zech. 13:2,3. Rev. 2:2,14,15,20. Rev. 17:12,16,17. [g] Deut. 4:15-19. Acts 17:29. Rom. 1:21-23,25. [h] Dan. 3:18. Gal. 4:8. [i] Exod. 32:5. [k] Exod. 32:8. [l] 1 Kings 18:26,28. Isa. 65:11. [m] Acts 17:22. Col. 2:21-23. [n] Mal. 1:7,8,14. [o] Deut. 4:2. [p] Ps. 106:39. [q] Matt. 15:9. [r] 1 Pet. 1:18. [s] Jer. 44:17. [t] Isa. 65:3-5. Gal. 1:13,14. [v] 1 Sam. 13:11,12. 1 Sam. 15:21. [w] Acts 8:18. [x] Rom. 2:22. Mal. 3:8. [y] Exod. 4:24-26. [z] Matt. 22:5. Mal. 1:7,13. [a] Matt. 23:13. [b] Acts 13:44,45. 1 Thess. 2:15,16.

Q. 110. What are the reasons annexed to the second commandment, the more to enforce it? A. The reasons annexed to the second commandment, the more to enforce it, contained in these words, For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments;[c] are, besides God’s sovereignty over us, and propriety in us,[d] his fervent zeal for his own worship,[e] and his revengeful indignation against all false worship, as being a spiritual whoredom;[f] accounting the breakers of this commandment such as hate him, and threatening to punish them unto divers generations;[g] and esteeming the observers of it such as love him and keep his commandments, and promising mercy to them unto many generations.[h]

[c] Exod. 20:5,6. [d] Ps. 45:11. Rev. 15:3,4. [e] Exod. 34:13,14. [f] 1 Cor. 10:20-22. Jer. 7:18-20. Ezek. 16:26,27. Deut. 32:16-20. [g] Hos. 2:2-4. [h] Deut. 5:29.

Q. 111. Which is the third commandment? A. The third commandment is, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.[i]

[i] Exod. 20:7.

Q. 112. What is required in the third commandment? A. The third commandment requires, That the name of God, his titles, attributes,[k] ordinances,[l] the word,[m] sacraments,[n] prayer,[o] oaths,[p] vows,[q] lots,[r] his works,[s] and whatsoever else there is whereby he makes himself known, be holily and reverently used in thought,[t] meditation,[v] word,[w] and writing;[x] by an holy profession,[y] and answerable conversation,[z] to the glory of God,[a] and the good of ourselves,[b] and others.[c]

[k] Matt. 6:9. Deut. 28:58. Ps. 29:2. Ps. 68:4. Rev. 15:3,4. [l] Mal. 1:14. Eccl. 5:1. [m] Ps. 138:2. [n] 1 Cor. 11:24,25,28,29. [o] 1 Tim. 2:8. [p] Jer. 4:2. [q] Eccl. 5:2,4-6. [r] Acts 1:24,26. [s] Job 36:24. [t] Mal. 3:16. [v] Ps. 8. [w] Col. 3:17. Ps. 105:2,5. [x] Ps. 102:18. [y] 1 Pet. 3:15. Micah 4:5. [z] Phil. 1:27. [a] 1 Cor. 10:31. [b] Jer. 32:39. [c] 1 Pet. 2:12.

Q. 113. What are the sins forbidden in the third commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the third commandment are, the not using of God’s name as is required;[d] and the abuse of it in an ignorant,[e] vain,[f] irreverent, profane,[g] superstitious,[h] or wicked mentioning or otherwise using his titles, attributes,[i] ordinances,[k] or works,[l] by blasphemy,[m] perjury;[n] all sinful cursings,[o] oaths,[p] vows,[q] and lots;[r] violating of our oaths and vows, if lawful;[s] and fulfilling them, if of things unlawful;[t] murmuring and quarrelling at,[v] curious prying into,[w] and misapplying of God’s decrees[x] and providences;[y] misinterpreting,[z] misapplying,[a] or any way perverting the word, or any part of it,[b] to profane jests,[c] curious or unprofitable questions, vain janglings, or the maintaining of false doctrines;[d] abusing it, the creatures, or any thing contained under the name of God, to charms,[e] or sinful lusts and practices;[f] the maligning,[g] scorning,[h] reviling,[i] or any wise opposing of God’s truth, grace, and ways;[k] making profession of religion in hypocrisy, or for sinister ends;[l] being ashamed of it,[m] or a shame to it, by unconformable,[n] unwise,[o] unfruitful,[p] and offensive walking,[q] or backsliding from it.[r]

[d] Mal. 2:2. [e] Acts 17:23. [f] Prov. 30:9. [g] Mal. 1:6,7,12. Mal. 3:14. [h] 1 Sam. 4:3-5. Jer. 7:4,9,10,14,31. Col. 2:20-22. [i] 2 Kings 18:30,35. Exod. 5:2. Ps. 139:20. [k] Ps. 50:16,17. [l] Isa. 5:12. [m] 2 Kings 19:22. Lev. 24:11. [n] Zech. 5:4. Zech. 8:17. [o] 1 Sam. 17:43. 2 Sam. 16:5. [p] Jer. 5:7. Jer. 23:10. [q] Deut. 23:18. Acts 23:12,14. [r] Esth. 3:7. Esth. 9:24. Ps. 22:18. [s] Ps. 24:4. Ezek 17:16,18,19. [t] Mark 6:26. 1 Sam. 25:22,32-34. [v] Rom. 9:14,19,20. [w] Deut. 29:29. [x] Rom. 3:5,7. Rom. 6:1,2. [y] Eccl. 8:11. Eccl. 9:3. Ps. 39. [z] Matt. 5:21-48. [a] Ezek. 13:22. [b] 2 Pet. 3:16. Matt. 22:24-31. [c] Isa. 22:13. Jer. 23:34,36,38. [d] 1 Tim. 1:4,6,7. 1 Tim. 6:4,5,20. 2 Tim. 2:14. Tit. 3:9. [e] Deut. 18:10-14. Acts 19:13. [f] 2 Tim. 4:3,4. Rom. 13:13,14. 1 Kings 21:9,10. Jude 4. [g] Acts 13:45. 1 John 3:12. [h] Ps. 1:1. 2 Pet. 3:3. [i] 1 Pet. 4:4. [k] Acts 13:45,46,50. Acts 4:18. Acts 19:9. 1 Thess. 2:16. Heb. 10:29. [l] 2 Tim. 3:5. Matt. 23:14. Matt. 6:1,2,5,16. [m] Mark 8:38. [n] Ps. 73:14,15. [o] 1 Cor. 6:5,6. Eph. 5:15-17. [p] Isa. 5:4. 2 Pet. 1:8,9. [q] Rom. 2:23,24. [r] Gal. 3:1,3. Heb. 6:6.

Q. 114. What reasons are annexed to the third commandment? A. The reasons annexed to the third commandment, in these words, [The Lord thy God,] and, [For the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain,[s]] are, because he is the Lord and our God, therefore his name is not to be profaned, or any way abused by us;[t] especially because he will be so far from acquitting and sparing the transgressors of this commandment, as that he will not suffer them to escape his righteous judgment,[v] albeit many such escape the censures and punishments of men.[w]

[s] Exod. 20:7. [t] Lev. 19:12. [v] Ezek. 36:21-23. Deut. 28:58,59. Zech 5:2-4. [w] 1 Sam. 2:12,17,22,24 compared with 1 Sam. 3:13.

Q. 115. Which is the fourth commandment? A. The fourth commandment is, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath-day, and hallowed it.[x]

[x] Exod. 20:8-11.

Q. 116. What is required in the fourth commandment? A. The fourth commandment requireth of all men the sanctifying or keeping holy to God such set times as he hath appointed in his word, expressly one whole day in seven; which was the seventh from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, and the first day of the week ever since, and so to continue to the end of the world; which is the Christian sabbath,[y] and in the New Testament called The Lord’s day.[z]

[y] Deut. 5:12-14. Gen. 2:2,3. 1 Cor. 16:1,2. Acts 20:7. Matt. 5:17,18. Isa. 56:2,4,6,7. [z] Rev. 1:10.

Q. 117. How is the sabbath or the Lord’s day to be sanctified? A. The sabbath or Lord’s day is to be sanctified by an holy resting all the day,[a] not only from such works as are at all times sinful, but even from such worldly employments and recreations as are on other days lawful;[b] and making it our delight to spend the whole time (except so much of it as is to be taken up in works of necessity and mercy[c]) in the public and private exercises of God’s worship:[d] and, to that end, we are to prepare our hearts, and with such foresight, diligence, and moderation, to dispose and seasonably dispatch our worldly business, that we may be the more free and fit for the duties of that day.[e]

[a] Exod. 20:8,10. [b] Exod. 16:25-28. Neh. 13:15-22. Jer. 17:21,22. [c] Matt. 12:1-13. [d] Isa. 58:13. Luke 4:16. Acts 20:7. 1 Cor. 16:1,2. Ps. 92:title. Isa. 66:23. Lev. 23:3. [e] Exod. 20:8. Luke 23:54,56. Exod. 16:22,25,26,29. Neh. 13:19.

Q. 118. Why is the charge of keeping the sabbath more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors? A. The charge of keeping the sabbath is more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors, because they are bound not only to keep it themselves, but to see that it be observed by all those that are under their charge; and because they are prone ofttimes to hinder them by employments of their own.[f]

[f] Exod. 20:10. Josh. 24:15. Neh. 13:15,17. Jer. 17:20-22. Exod. 23:12.

Q. 119. What are the sins forbidden in the fourth commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the fourth commandment are, all omissions of the duties required,[g] all careless, negligent and unprofitable performing of them, and being weary of them;[h] all profaning the day by idleness, and doing that which is in itself sinful;[i] and by all needless works, words, and thoughts, about our worldly employments and recreations.[k]

[g] Ezek. 22:26. [h] Acts 20:7,9. Ezek. 33:30-32. Amos 8:5. Mal. 1:13. [i] Ezek. 23:38. [k] Jer. 17:24,27. Isa. 58:13.

Q. 120. What are the reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it? A. The reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it, are taken from the equity of it, God allowing us six days of seven for our own affairs, and reserving but one for himself, in these words, Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:[l] from God’s challenging a special propriety in that day, The seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God:[m] from the example of God, who in six days made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: and from that blessing which God put upon that day, not only in sanctifying it to be a day for his service, but in ordaining it to be a means of blessing to us in our sanctifying it; Wherefore the lord blessed the sabbath-day, and hallowed it.[n]

[l] Exod. 20:9. [m] Exod. 20:10. [n] Exod. 20:11.

Q. 121. Why is the word Remember set in the beginning of the fourth commandment? A. The word Remember is set in the beginning of the fourth commandment,[o] partly, because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped in our preparation to keep it,[p] and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments,[q] and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of creation and redemption, which contain a short abridgment of religion;[r] and partly, because we are very ready to forget it,[s] for that there is less light of nature for it,[t] and yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things at other times lawful;[v] that it cometh but once in seven days, and many worldly businesses come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to prepare for it, or to sanctify it;[w] and that Satan with his instruments much labour to blot out the glory and even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety.[x]

[o] Exod. 20:8. [p] Exod. 16:23. Luke 23:54,56 compared with Mark 15:42. Neh. 13:19. [q] Ps. 92:title compared with vv. 13,14. Ezek. 20:12,19,20. [r] Gen. 2:2,3. Ps. 118:22,24 compared with Acts 4:10,11. Rev. 1:10. [s] Ezek. 22:26. [t] Neh. 9:14. [v] Exod. 34:21. [w] Deut. 5:14,15. Amos 8:5. [x] Lam. 1:7. Jer. 17:21-23. Neh. 13:15-23.

Q. 122. What is the sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man? A. The sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man, is, to love our neighbour as ourselves,[y] and to do to others what we would have them to do to us.[z]

[y] Matt. 22:39. [z] Matt. 7:12.

Q. 123. Which is the fifth commandment? A. The fifth commandment is, Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.[a]

[a] Exod. 20:12.

Q. 124. Who are meant by father and mother in the fifth commandment? A. By father and mother, in the fifth commandment, are meant, not only natural parents,[b] but all superiors in age[c] and gifts;[d] and especially such as, by God’s ordinance, are over us in place of authority, whether in family,[e] church,[f] or commonwealth.[g]

[b] Prov. 23:22,25. Eph. 6:1,2. [c] 1 Tim. 5:1,2. [d] Gen. 4:20-22. Gen. 45:8. [e] 2 Kings 5:13. [f] 2 Kings 2:12. 2 Kings 13:14. Gal. 4:19. [g] Isa. 49:23.

Q. 125. Why are superiors stiled Father and Mother? A. Superiors are stiled Father and Mother, both to teach them in all duties toward their inferiors, like natural parents, to express love and tenderness to them, according to their several relations;[h] and to work inferiors to a greater willingness and cheerfulness in performing their duties to their superiors, as to their parents.[i]

[h] Eph. 6:4. 2 Cor. 12:14. 1 Thess. 2:7,8,11. Num. 11:11,12. [i] 1 Cor. 4:14-16. 2 Kings 5:13.

Q. 126. What is the general scope of the fifth commandment? A. The general scope of the fifth commandment is, the performance of those duties which we mutually owe in our several relations, as inferiors, superiors, or equals.[k]

[k] Eph. 5:21. 1 Pet. 2:17. Rom. 12:10.

Q. 127. What is the honour that inferiors owe to their superiors? A. The honour which inferiors owe to their superiors is, all due reverence in heart,[l] word,[m] and behaviour;[n] prayer and thanksgiving for them;[o] imitation of their virtues and graces;[p] willing obedience to their lawful commands and counsels;[q] due submission to their corrections;[r] fidelity to,[s] defence,[t] and maintenance of their persons and authority, according to their several ranks, and the nature of their places;[v] bearing with their infirmities, and covering them in love,[w] that so they may be an honour to them and to their government.[x]

[l] Mal. 1:6. Lev. 19:3. [m] Prov. 31:28. 1 Pet. 3:6. [n] Lev. 19:32. 1 Kings 2:19. [o] 1 Tim. 2:1,2. [p] Heb. 13:7. Phil. 3:17. [q] Eph. 6:1,2,5-7. 1 Pet. 2:13,14. Rom. 13:1-5. Heb. 13:17. Prov. 4:3,4. Prov. 23:22. Exod. 18:19,24. [r] Heb. 12:9. 1 Pet. 2:18-20. [s] Tit. 2:9,10. [t] 1 Sam. 26:15,16. 2 Sam. 18:3. Esth. 6:2. [v] Matt. 22:21. Rom. 13:6,7. 1 Tim. 5:17,18. Gal. 6:6. Gen. 45:11. Gen. 47:12. [w] 1 Pet. 2:18. Prov. 23:22. Gen. 9:23. [x] Ps. 127:3-5. Prov. 31:23.

Q. 128. What are the sins of inferiors against their superiors? A. The sins of inferiors against their superiors are, all neglect of the duties required toward them;[y] envying at,[z] contempt of,[a] and rebellion[b] against, their persons[c] and places,[d] in their lawful counsels,[e] commands, and corrections;[f] cursing, mocking,[g] and all such refractory and scandalous carriage, as proves a shame and dishonour to them and their government.[h]

[y] Matt. 15:4-6. [z] Num. 11:28,29. [a] 1 Sam. 8:7. Isa. 3:5. [b] 2 Sam. 15:1-12. [c] Exod. 21:15. [d] 1 Sam. 10:27. [e] 1 Sam. 2:25. [f] Deut. 21:18-21. [g] Prov. 30:11,17. [h] Prov. 19:26.

Q. 129. What is required of superiors towards their inferiors? A. It is required of superiors, according to that power they receive from God, and that relation wherein they stand, to love,[i] pray for,[k] and bless their inferiors;[l] to instruct,[m] counsel, and admonish them;[n] countenancing,[o] commending,[p] and rewarding such as do well;[q] and discountenancing,[r] reproving, and chastising such as do ill;[s] protecting,[t] and providing for them all things necessary for soul[v] and body:[w] and by grave, wise, holy, and exemplary carriage, to procure glory to God,[x] honour to themselves,[y] and so to preserve that authority which God hath put upon them.[z]

[i] Col. 3:19. Tit. 2:4. [k] 1 Sam. 12:23. Job 1:5. [l] 1 Kings 8:55,56. Heb. 7:7. Gen. 49:28. [m] Deut. 6:6,7. [n] Eph. 6:4. [o] 1 Pet. 3:7. [p] 1 Pet. 2:14. Rom. 13:3. [q] Esth. 6:3. [r] Rom. 13:3,4. [s] Prov. 29:15. 1 Pet. 2:14. [t] Job 29:12-17. Isa. 1:10,17. [v] Eph. 6:4. [w] 1 Tim. 5:8. [x] 1 Tim. 4:12. Tit. 2:3-5. [y] 1 Kings 3:28. [z] Tit. 2:15.

Q. 130. What are the sins of superiors? A. The sins of superiors are, besides the neglect of the duties required of them,[a] an inordinate seeking of themselves,[b] their own glory,[c] ease, profit, or pleasure;[d] commanding things unlawful,[e] or not in the power of inferiors to perform;[f] counselling,[g] encouraging,[h] or favouring them in that which is evil;[i] dissuading, discouraging, or discountenancing them in that which is good;[k] correcting them unduly,[l] careless exposing, or leaving them to wrong, temptation, and danger;[m] provoking them to wrath;[n] or any way dishonouring themselves, or lessening their authority, by an unjust, indiscreet, rigorous, or remiss behaviour.[o]

[a] Ezek. 34:2-4. [b] Phil. 2:21. [c] John 5:44. John 7:18. [d] Isa. 56:10,11. Deut. 17:17. [e] Dan. 3:4-6. Acts 4:17,18. [f] Exod. 5:10-18. Matt. 23:2,4. [g] Matt. 14:8 compared with Mark 6:24. [h] 2 Sam. 13:28. [i] 1 Sam. 3:13. [k] John 7:46-49. Col. 3:21. Exod. 5:17. [l] 1 Pet. 2:18-20. Heb. 12:10. Deut. 25:3. [m] Gen. 38:11,26. Acts 18:17. [n] Eph. 6:4. [o] Gen. 9:21. 1 Kings 12:13-16. 1 Kings 1:6. 1 Sam. 2:29-31.

Q. 131. What are the duties of equals? A. The duties of equals are, to regard the dignity and worth of each other,[p] in giving honour to go one before another;[q] and to rejoice in each others gifts and advancement, as their own.[r]

[p] 1 Pet. 2:17. [q] Rom. 12:10. [r] Rom. 12:15,16. Phil. 2:3,4.

Q. 132. What are the sins of equals? A. The sins of equals are, besides the neglect of the duties required,[s] the undervaluing of the worth,[t] envying the gifts,[v] grieving at the advancement or prosperity one of another;[w] and usurping pre-eminence one over another.[x]

[s] Rom. 13:8. [t] 2 Tim. 3:3. [v] Acts 7:9. Gal. 5:26. [w] Num. 12:2. Esth. 6:12,13. [x] 3 John 9. Luke 22:24.

Q. 133. What is the reason annexed to the fifth commandment, the more to enforce it? A. The reason annexed to the fifth commandment, in these words, That thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee,[y] is an express promise of long life and prosperity, as far as it shall serve for God’s glory and their own good, to all such as keep this commandment.[z]

[y] Exod. 20:12. [z] Deut. 5:16. 1 Kings 8:25. Eph. 6:2,3.

Q. 134. Which is the sixth commandment? A. The sixth commandment is, Thou shalt not kill.[a]

[a] Exod. 20:13.

Q. 135. What are the duties required in the sixth commandment? A. The duties required in the sixth commandment are, all careful studies, and lawful endeavours, to preserve the life of ourselves[b] and others[c] by resisting all thoughts and purposes,[d] subduing all passions,[e] and avoiding all occasions,[f] temptations,[g] and practices, which tend to the unjust taking away the life of any;[h] by just defence thereof against violence,[i] patient bearing of the hand of God,[k] quietness of mind,[l] cheerfulness of spirit;[m] a sober use of meat,[n] drink,[o] physick,[p] sleep,[q] labour,[r] and recreations;[s] by charitable thoughts,[t] love,[v] compassion,[w] meekness, gentleness, kindness;[x] peaceable,[y] mild and courteous speeches and behaviour;[z] forbearance, readiness to be reconciled, patient bearing and forgiving of injuries, and requiting good for evil;[a] a comforting and succouring the distressed, and protecting and defending the innocent.[b]

[b] Eph. 5:28,29. [c] 1 Kings 18:4. [d] Jer. 26:15,16. Acts 23:12,16,17,21,27. [e] Eph. 4:26,27. [f] 2 Sam. 2:22. Deut. 22:8. [g] Matt. 4:6,7. Prov. 1:10,11,15,16. [h] 1 Sam. 24:12. 1 Sam. 26:9-11. Gen. 37:21,22. [i] Ps. 82:4. Prov. 24:11,12. 1 Sam. 14:45. [k] James 5:7-11. Heb. 12:9. [l] 1 Thess. 4:11. 1 Pet. 3:3,4. Ps. 37:8-11. [m] Prov. 17:22. [n] Prov. 25:16,27. [o] 1 Tim. 5:23. [p] Isa. 38:21. [q] Ps. 127:2. [r] Eccl. 5:12. 2 Thess. 3:10,12. Prov. 16:26. [s] Eccl. 3:4. [t] 1 Sam. 19:4,5. 1 Sam. 22:13,14. [v] Rom. 13:10. [w] Luke 10:33,34. [x] Col. 3:12,13. [y] James 3:17. [z] 1 Pet. 3:8-11. Prov. 15:1. Judges 8:1-3. [a] Matt. 5:24. Eph. 4:2,32. Rom. 12:17,20,21. [b] 1 Thess. 5:14. Job 31:19,20. Matt. 25:35,36. Prov. 31:8,9.

Q. 136. What are the sins forbidden in the sixth commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the sixth commandment are, all taking away the life of ourselves,[c] or of others,[d] except in case of publick justice,[e] lawful ward, or necessary defence;[f] the neglecting or withdrawing the lawful and necessary means of preservation of life;[g] sinful anger,[h] hatred,[i] envy,[k] desire of revenge;[l] all excessive passions,[m] distracting cares;[n] immoderate use of meat,[o] drink,[p] labour,[q] and recreations;[r] provoking words,[s] oppression,[t] quarrelling,[v] striking, wounding,[w] and whatsoever else tends to the destruction of the life of any.[x]

[c] Acts 16:28. [d] Gen. 9:6. [e] Num. 35:31,33. [f] Jer. 48:10. Deut. 20. [g] Exod. 22:2,3. [h] Matt. 25:42,43. James 2:15,16. Eccl. 6:1,2. [i] Matt. 5:22. [k] 1 John 3:15. Lev. 19:17. [l] Prov. 14:30. [m] Rom. 12:19. [n] Eph. 4:31. [o] Matt. 6:31,34. [p] Luke 21:34. Rom. 13:13. [q] Eccl. 12:12. Eccl. 2:22,23. [r] Isa. 5:12. [s] Prov. 15:1. Prov. 12:18. [t] Ezek. 18:18. Exod. 1:14. [v] Gal. 5:15. Prov. 23:29. [w] Num. 35:16-18,21. [x] Exod. 21:18-36.

Q. 137. Which is the seventh commandment? A. The seventh commandment is, Thou shalt not commit adultery.[y]

[y] Exod. 20:14.

Q. 138. What are the duties required in the seventh commandment? A. The duties required in the seventh commandment are, chastity in body, mind, affections,[z] words,[a] and behaviour;[b] and the preservation of it in ourselves and others;[c] watchfulness over the eyes and all the senses;[d] temperance,[e] keeping of chaste company,[f] modesty in apparel;[g] marriage by those that have not the gift of continency,[h] conjugal love,[i] and cohabitation;[k] diligent labour in our callings;[l] shunning all occasions of uncleanness, and resisting temptations thereunto.[m]

[z] 1 Thess. 4:4. Job 31:1. 1 Cor. 7:34. [a] Col. 4:6. [b] 1 Pet. 2:3. [c] 1 Cor. 7:2,35,36. [d] Job 31:1. [e] Acts 24:24,25. [f] Prov. 2:16-20. [g] 1 Tim. 2:9. [h] 1 Cor. 7:2,9. [i] Prov. 5:19,20. [k] 1 Pet. 3:7. [l] Prov. 31:11,27,28. [m] Prov. 5:8. Gen. 39:8-10.

Q. 139. What are the sins forbidden in the seventh commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the seventh commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,[n] are, adultery, fornication,[o] rape, incest,[p] sodomy, and all unnatural lusts;[q] all unclean imaginations, thoughts, purposes, and affections;[r] all corrupt or filthy communications, or listening thereunto;[s] wanton looks,[t] impudent or light behaviour, immodest apparel;[v] prohibiting of lawful,[w] and dispensing with unlawful marriages;[x] allowing, tolerating, keeping of stews, and resorting to them;[y] entangling vows of single life,[z] undue delay of marriage;[a] having more wives or husbands than one at the same time;[b] unjust divorce[c] or desertion;[d] idleness, gluttony, drunkenness,[e] unchaste company;[f] lascivious songs, books, pictures, dancings, stage plays;[g] and all other provocations to, or acts of uncleanness, either in ourselves or others.[h]

[n] Prov. 5:7. [o] Heb. 13:4. Gal. 5:19. [p] 2 Sam. 13:14. 1 Cor. 5:1. [q] Rom. 1:24,26,27. Lev. 20:15,16. [r] Matt. 5:28. Matt. 15:19. Col. 3:5. [s] Eph. 5:3,4. Prov. 7:5,21,22. [t] Isa. 3:16. 2 Pet. 2:14. [v] Prov. 7:10,13. [w] 1 Tim. 4:3. [x] Lev. 18:1-21. Mark 6:18. Mal. 2:11,12. [y] 1 Kings 15:12. 2 Kings 23:7. Deut. 23:17,18. Lev. 19:29. Jer. 5:7. Prov. 7:24-27. [z] Matt. 19:10,11. [a] 1 Cor. 7:7-9. Gen. 38:26. [b] Mal. 2:14,15. Matt. 19:5. [c] Mal. 2:16. Matt. 5:32. [d] 1 Cor. 7:12,13. [e] Ezek. 16:49. Prov. 23:30-33. [f] Gen. 39:10. Prov. 5:8. [g] Eph. 5:4. Ezek. 23:14-16. Isa. 23:15-17. Isa. 3:16. Mark 6:22. Rom. 13:13. 1 Pet. 4:3. [h] 2 Kings 9:30 compared with Jer. 4:30 and with Ezek 23:40.

Q. 140. Which is the eighth commandment? A. The eighth commandment is, Thou shalt not steal.[i]

[i] Exod. 20:15.

Q. 141. What are the duties required in the eighth commandment? A. The duties required in the eighth commandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice in contracts and commerce between man and man;[k] rendering to every one his due;[l] restitution of goods unlawfully detained from the right owners thereof;[m] giving and lending freely, according to our abilities, and the necessities of others;[n] moderation of our judgments, wills, and affections concerning worldly goods;[o] a provident care and study to get,[p] keep, use, and dispose these things which are necessary and convenient for the sustentation of our nature, and suitable to our condition;[q] a lawful calling,[r] and diligence in it;[s] frugality,[t] avoiding unnecessary law-suits,[v] and suretiship, or other like engagements;[w] and an endeavour, by all just and lawful means, to procure, preserve, and further the wealth and outward estate of others, as well as our own.[x]

[k] Ps. 15:2,4. Zech. 7:4,10. Zech. 8:16,17. [l] Rom. 13:7. [m] Lev. 6:2-5 compared with Luke 19:8. [n] Luke 6:30,38. 1 John 3:17. Eph. 4:28. Gal. 6:10. [o] 1 Tim. 6:6-9. Gal. 6:14. [p] 1 Tim. 5:8. [q] Prov. 27:23-27. Eccl. 2:24. Eccl. 3:12,13. 1 Tim. 6:17,18. Isa. 38:1. Matt. 11:8. [r] 1 Cor. 7:20. Gen. 2:15. Gen. 3:19. [s] Eph. 4:28. Prov. 10:4. [t] John 6:12. Prov. 21:20. [v] 1 Cor. 6:1-9. [w] Prov. 6:1-6. Prov. 11:15. [x] Lev. 25:35. Deut. 22:1-4. Exod. 23:4,5. Gen. 47:14,20. Phil. 2:4. Matt. 22:39.

Q. 142. What are the sins forbidden in the eighth commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the eighth commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,[y] are, theft,[z] robbery,[a] man-stealing,[b] and receiving any thing that is stolen;[c] fraudulent dealing,[d] false weights and measures,[e] removing land-marks,[f] injustice and unfaithfulness in contracts between man and man,[g] or in matters of trust;[h] oppression,[i] extortion,[k] usury,[l] bribery,[m] vexatious law-suits,[n] unjust inclosures and depopulations;[o] ingrossing commodities to enhance the price;[p] unlawful callings,[q] and all other unjust or sinful ways of taking or withholding from our neighbour what belongs to him, or of enriching ourselves;[r] covetousness;[s] inordinate prizing and affecting worldly goods;[t] distrustful and distracting cares and studies in getting, keeping, and using them;[v] envying at the prosperity of others;[w] as likewise idleness,[x] prodigality, wasteful gaming; and all other ways whereby we do unduly prejudice our own outward estate,[y] and defrauding ourselves of the due use and comfort of that estate which God hath given us.[z]

[y] James 2:15,16. 1 John 3:17. [z] Eph. 4:28. [a] Ps. 62:10. [b] 1 Tim. 1:10. [c] Prov. 29:24. Ps. 50:18. [d] 1 Thess. 4:6. [e] Prov. 20:10. [f] Deut. 19:14. Prov. 23:10. [g] Amos 8:5. Ps. 37:21. [h] Luke 16:10-12. [i] Ezek. 22:29. Lev. 25:17. [k] Matt. 23:25. Ezek. 22:12. [l] Ps. 15:5. [m] Job 15:34. [n] 1 Cor. 6:6-8. Prov. 3:29,30. [o] Isa. 5:8. Micah 2:2. [p] Prov. 11:26. [q] Acts 19:19,24,25. [r] Job 20:19. James 5:4. Prov. 21:6. [s] Luke 12:15. [t] 1 Tim. 6:5. Col. 3:2. Prov. 23:5. Ps. 62:10. [v] Matt. 6:25,31,34. Eccl. 5:12. [w] Ps. 73:3. Ps. 37:1,7. [x] 2 Thess. 3:11. Prov. 18:9. [y] Prov. 23:21:17. Prov. 23:20,21. Prov. 28:19. [z] Eccl. 4:8. Eccl. 6:2. 1 Tim. 5:8.

Q. 143. Which is the ninth commandment? A. The ninth commandment is, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.[a]

[a] Exod. 20:16.

Q. 144. What are the duties required in the ninth commandment? A. The duties required in the ninth commandment are, the preserving and promoting of truth between man and man,[b] and the good name of our neighbour, as well as our own;[c] appearing and standing for the truth;[d] and from the heart,[e] sincerely,[f] freely,[g] clearly,[h] and fully,[i] speaking the truth, and only the truth, in matters of judgment and justice,[k] and in all other things whatsoever;[l] a charitable esteem of our neighbours;[m] loving, desiring, and rejoicing in their good name;[n] sorrowing for,[o] and covering of their infirmities;[p] freely acknowledging of their gifts and graces,[q] defending their innocency;[r] a ready receiving of a good report,[s] and unwillingness to admit of an evil report,[t] concerning them; discouraging tale-bearers,[v] flatterers,[w] and slanderers;[x] love and care of our own good name, and defending it when need requireth;[y] keeping of lawful promises;[z] studying and practising of whatsoever things are true, honest, lovely, and of good report.[a]

[b] Zech. 8:16. [c] 3 John 12. [d] Prov. 31:8,9. [e] Ps. 15:2. [f] 2 Chron. 19:9. [g] 1 Sam. 19:4,5. [h] Josh. 7:19. [i] 2 Sam. 14:18-20. [k] Lev. 19:15. Prov. 14:5,25. [l] 2 Cor. 1:17,18. Eph. 4:25. [m] Heb. 6:9. 1 Cor. 13:7. [n] Rom. 1:8. 2 John 4. 3 John 3,4. [o] 2 Cor. 2:4. 2 Cor. 12:21. [p] Prov. 17:9. 1 Pet. 4:8. [q] 1 Cor. 1:4,5,7. 2 Tim. 1:4,5. [r] 1 Sam. 22:14. [s] 1 Cor. 13:6,7. [t] Ps. 15:3. [v] Prov. 25:23. [w] Prov. 26:24,25. [x] Ps. 101:5. [y] Prov. 22:1. John 8:49. [z] Ps. 15:4. [a] Phil. 4:8.

Q. 145. What are the sins forbidden in the ninth commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the ninth commandment are, all prejudicing the truth, and the good name of our neighbours, as well as our own,[b] especially in public judicature;[c] giving false evidence,[d] suborning false witnesses,[e] wittingly appearing and pleading for an evil cause, out-facing and over-bearing the truth;[f] passing unjust sentence,[g] calling evil good, and good evil; rewarding the wicked according to the work of the righteous, and the righteous according to the work of the wicked;[h] forgery,[i] concealing the truth, undue silence in a just cause,[k] and holding our peace when iniquity calleth for either a reproof from ourselves,[l] or complaint to others;[m] speaking the truth unseasonably,[n] or maliciously to a wrong end,[o] or perverting it to a wrong meaning,[p] or in doubtful or equivocal expressions, to the prejudice of truth or justice;[q] speaking untruth,[r] lying,[s] slandering,[t] backbiting,[v] detracting,[w] tale-bearing,[x] whispering,[y] scoffing,[z] reviling,[a] rash,[b] harsh,[c] and partial censuring;[d] misconstructing intentions, words, and actions;[e] flattering,[f] vain-glorious boasting,[g] thinking or speaking too highly or too meanly of ourselves or others,[h] denying the gifts and graces of God;[i] aggravating smaller faults;[k] hiding, excusing, or extenuating of sins, when called to a free confession;[l] unnecessary discovering of infirmities;[m] raising false rumours,[n] receiving and countenancing evil reports,[o] and stopping our ears against just defence;[p] evil suspicion;[q] envying or grieving at the deserved credit of any,[r] endeavouring or desiring to impair it,[s] rejoicing in their disgrace and infamy;[t] scornful contempt,[v] fond admiration;[w] breach of lawful promises;[x] neglecting such things as are of good report,[y] and practising, or not avoiding ourselves, or not hindering what we can in others, such things as procure an ill name.[z]

[b] 1 Sam. 17:28. 2 Sam. 16:3. 2 Sam. 1:9,10,15,16. [c] Lev. 19:15. Hab. 1:4. [d] Prov. 19:5. Prov. 6:16,19. [e] Acts 6:13. [f] Jer. 9:3,5. Acts 24:2,5. Ps. 12:3,4. Ps. 52:1-4. [g] Prov. 17:15. 1 Kings 21:9-14. [h] Isa. 5:23. [i] Ps. 119:69. Luke 19:8. Luke 16:5-7. [k] Lev. 5:1. Deut. 13:8. Acts 5:3,8,9. 2 Tim. 4:6. [l] 1 Kings 1:6. Lev. 19:17. [m] Isa. 59:4. [n] Prov. 29:11. [o] 1 Sam. 22:9,10 compared with Ps. 52:title,1-5. [p] Ps. 56:5. John 2:19 compared with Matt. 26:60,61. [q] Gen. 26:7,9. [r] Isa. 59:13. [s] Lev. 19:11. Col. 3:9. [t] Ps. 50:20. [v] Ps. 15:3. [w] James 4:11. Jer. 38:4. [x] Lev. 19:16. [y] Rom. 1:29,30. [z] Gen. 21:9 compared with Gal. 4:29. [a] 1 Cor. 6:10. [b] Matt. 7:1. [c] Acts 28:4. [d] Gen. 38:24. Rom. 2:1. [e] Neh. 6:6-8. Rom. 3:8. Ps. 69:10. 1 Sam. 1:13-15. 2 Sam. 10:3. [f] Ps. 12:2,3. [g] 2 Tim. 3:2. [h] Luke 18:9,11. Rom. 12:16. 1 Cor. 4:6. Acts 12:22. Exod. 4:10-14. [i] Job 27:5,6. Job 4:6. [k] Matt. 7:3-5. [l] Prov. 28:13. Prov. 30:20. Gen. 3:12,13. Jer. 2:35. 2 Kings 5:25. Gen. 4:9. [m] Gen. 9:22. Prov. 25:9,10. [n] Exod. 23:1. [o] Prov. 29:12. [p] Acts 7:56,57. Job 31:13,14. [q] 1 Cor. 13:5. 1 Tim. 6:4. [r] Num. 11:29. Matt. 21:15. [s] Ezra 4:12,13. [t] Jer. 48:27. [v] Ps. 35:15,16,21. Matt. 27:28,29. [w] Jude 16. Acts 12:22. [x] Rom. 1:31. 2 Tim. 3:3. [y] 1 Sam. 2:24. [z] 2 Sam. 13:12,13. Prov. 5:8,9. Prov. 6:33.

Q. 146. Which is the tenth commandment? A. The tenth commandment is, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s.[a]

[a] Exod. 20:17.

Q. 147. What are the duties required in the tenth commandment? A. The duties required in the tenth commandment are, such a full contentment with our own condition,[b] and such a charitable frame of the whole soul toward our neighbour, as that all our inward motions and affections touching him, tend unto, and further all that good which is his.[c]

[b] Heb. 13:5. 1 Tim. 6:6. [c] Job 31:29. Rom. 12:15. Ps. 122:7-9. 1 Tim. 1:5. Esth. 10:3. 1 Cor. 13:4-7.

Q. 148. What are the sins forbidden in the tenth commandment? A. The sins forbidden in the tenth commandment are, discontentment with our own estate;[d] envying[e] and grieving at the good of our neighbour,[f] together with all inordinate motions and affections to any thing that is his.[g]

[d] 1 Kings 21:4. Esth. 5:13. 1 Cor. 10:10. [e] Gal. 5:26. James 3:14,16. [f] Ps. 112:9,10. Neh. 2:10. [g] Rom. 7:7,8. Rom. 13:9. Col. 3:5. Deut. 5:21.

Q. 149. Is any man able perfectly to keep the commandments of God? A. No man is able, either of himself,[h] or by any grace received in this life, perfectly to keep the commandments of God;[i] but doth daily break them in thought,[k] word, and deed.[l]

[h] James 3:2. John 15:5. Rom. 8:3. [i] Eccl. 7:20. 1 John 1:8,10. Gal. 5:17. Rom. 7:18,19. [k] Gen. 6:5. Gen. 8:21. [l] Rom. 3:9-19. James 3:2-13.

Q. 150. Are all transgressions of the law of God equally heinous in themselves, and in the sight of God? A. All transgressions of the law of God are not equally heinous; but some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations, are more heinous in the sight of God than others.[m]

[m] John 19:11. Ezek. 8:6,13,15. 1 John 5:16. Ps. 78:17,32,56.

Q. 151. What are those aggravations that make some sins more heinous than others? A. Sins receive their aggravations, 1. From the persons offending;[n] if they be of riper age,[o] greater experience or grace,[p] eminent for profession,[q] gifts,[r] place,[s] office,[t] guides to others,[v] and whose example is likely to be followed by others.[w]

[n] Jer. 2:8. [o] Job 32:7,9. Eccl. 4:13. [p] 1 Kings 11:4,9. [q] 2 Sam. 12:14. 1 Cor. 5:1. [r] James 4:17. Luke 12:47,48. [s] Jer. 5:4,5. [t] 2 Sam. 12:7-9. Ezek. 8:11,12. [v] Rom. 2:17-24. [w] Gal. 2:11-14. 2. From the parties offended:[x] if immediately against God,[y] his attributes,[z] and worship;[a] against Christ, and his grace;[b] the Holy Spirit,[c] his witness,[d] and workings;[e] against superiors, men of eminency,[f] and such as we stand especially related and engaged unto;[g] against any of the saints,[h] particularly weak brethren,[i] the souls of them, or any other,[k] and the common good of all or many.[l]

[x] Matt. 21:38,39. [y] 1 Sam. 2:25. Acts 5:4. Ps. 51:4. [z] Rom. 2:4. [a] Mal. 1:8,14. [b] Heb. 2:2,3. Heb. 12:25. [c] Heb. 10:29. Matt. 12:31,32. [d] Eph. 4:30. [e] Heb. 6:4-6. [f] Jude 8. Num. 12:8,9. Isa. 3:5. [g] Prov. 30:17. 2 Cor. 12:15. Ps. 55:12-15. [h] Zeph. 2:8,10,11. Matt. 18:6. 1 Cor. 6:8. Rev. 17:6. [i] 1 Cor. 8:11,12. Rom. 14:13,15,21. [k] Ezek. 13:19. 1 Cor. 8:12. Rev. 18:12,13. Matt. 23:15. [l] 1 Thess. 2:15,16. Josh. 22:20. 3. From the nature and quality of the offence:[m] if it be against the express letter of the law,[n] break many commandments, contain in it many sins:[o] if not only conceived in the heart, but breaks forth in words and actions,[p] scandalize others,[q] and admit of no reparation:[r] if against means,[s] mercies,[t] judgments,[v] light of nature,[w] conviction of conscience,[x] publick or private admonition,[y] censures of the church,[z] civil punishments;[a] and our prayers, purposes, promises,[b] vows,[c] covenants,[d] and engagements to God or men:[e] if done deliberately,[f] wilfully,[g] presumptuously,[h] impudently,[i] boastingly,[k] maliciously,[l] frequently,[m] obstinately,[n] with delight,[o] continuance,[p] or relapsing after repentance.[q]

[m] Prov. 6:30-35. [n] Ezra 9:10-12. 1 Kings 11:9,10. [o] Col. 3:5. 1 Tim. 6:10. Prov. 5:8-12. Prov. 6:32,33. Josh 7:21. [p] James 1:14,15. Matt. 5:22. Micah 2:1. [q] Matt. 18:7. Rom. 2:23,24. [r] Deut. 22:22 compared with verses 28,29. Prov. 6:32-35. [s] Matt. 11:21-24. John 15:22. [t] Isa. 1:3. Deut. 32:6. [v] Amos 4:8-11. Jer. 5:3. [w] Rom. 1:26,27. [x] Rom. 1:32. Dan. 5:22. Tit. 3:10,11. [y] Prov. 29:1. [z] Tit. 3:10. Matt. 18:17. [a] Prov. 27:22. Prov. 23:35. [b] Ps. 78:34-37. Jer. 2:20. Jer. 42:5,6,20,21. [c] Eccl. 5:4-6. Prov. 20:25. [d] Lev. 26:25. [e] Prov. 2:17. Ezek. 17:18,19. [f] Ps. 36:4. [g] Jer. 6:16. [h] Num. 15:30. Exod. 21:14. [i] Jer. 3:3. Prov. 7:13. [k] Ps. 52:1. [l] 3 John 10. [m] Num. 14:22. [n] Zech. 7:11,12. [o] Prov. 2:14. [p] Isa. 57:17. [q] Jer. 34:8-11. 2 Pet. 2:20-22. 4. From circumstances of time[r] and place:[s] if on the Lord’s day,[t] or other times of divine worship;[v] or immediately before[w] or after these,[x] or other helps to prevent or remedy such miscarriages:[y] if in public, or in the presence of others, who are thereby likely to be provoked or defiled.[z]

[r] 2 Kings 5:26. [s] Jer. 7:10. Isa. 26:10. [t] Ezek. 23:37-39. [v] Isa. 58:3-5. Num. 25:6,7. [w] 1 Cor. 11:20,21. [x] Jer. 7:8-10. Prov. 7:14,15. John 13:27,30. [y] Ezra 9:13,14. [z] 2 Sam. 16:22. 1 Sam. 2:22-24

Q. 152. What doth every sin deserve at the hands of God? A. Every sin, even the least, being against the sovereignty,[a] goodness,[b] and holiness of God,[c] and against his righteous law,[d] deserveth his wrath and curse,[e] both in this life,[f] and that which is to come;[g] and cannot be expiated but by the blood of Christ.[h]

[a] James 2:10,11. [b] Exod. 20:1,2. [c] Hab. 1:13. Lev. 10:3. Lev. 11:44,45. [d] 1 John 3:4. Rom. 7:12. [e] Eph. 5:6. Gal. 3:10 [f] Lam. 3:39. Deut. 28:15-68. [g] Matt. 25:41. [h] Heb. 9:22. 1 Pet. 1:18,19.

Q. 153. What doth God require of us, that we may escape his wrath and curse due to us by reason of the transgression of the law? A. That we may escape the wrath and curse of God due to us by reason of the transgression of the law, he requireth of us repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ,[i] and the diligent use of the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation.[k]

[i] Acts 20:21. Matt. 3:7,8. Luke 13:3,5. Acts 16:30,31. John 3:16,18. [k] Prov. 2:1-5. Prov. 8:33-36.

Q. 154. What are the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation? A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to his church the benefits of his mediation, are all his ordinances; especially the word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for their salvation.[l]

[l] Matt. 28:19,20. Acts 2:42,46,47.

Q. 155. How is the word made effectual to salvation? A. The Spirit of God maketh the reading, but especially the preaching of the word, an effectual means of enlightening,[m] convincing, and humbling sinners;[n] of driving them out of themselves, and drawing them unto Christ;[o] of conforming them to his image,[p] and subduing them to his will;[q] of strengthening them against temptations and corruptions;[r] of building them up in grace,[s] and establishing their hearts in holiness and comfort through faith unto salvation.[t]

[m] Neh. 8:8. Acts 26:18. Ps. 19:8. [n] 1 Cor. 14:24,25. 2 Chron. 34:18,19,26-28. [o] Acts 2:37,41. Acts 8:27,39. [p] 2 Cor. 3:18. [q] 2 Cor. 10:4-6. Rom. 6:17. [r] Matt. 4:4,7,10. Eph. 6:16,17. Ps. 19:11. 1 Cor. 10:11. [s] Acts 20:32. 2 Tim. 3:15-17. [t] Rom. 16:25. 1 Thess. 3:2,10,11,13. Rom. 15:4. Rom. 10:13-17. Rom. 1:16.

Q. 156. Is the word of God to be read by all? A. Although all are not to be permitted to read the word publickly to the congregation,[v] yet all sorts of people are bound to read it apart by themselves,[w] and with their families:[x] to which end, the holy scriptures are to be translated out of the original into vulgar languages.[y]

[v] Deut. 31:9,11-13. Neh. 8:2,3. Neh. 9:3-5. [w] Deut. 17:19. Rev. 1:3. John 5:39. Isa. 34:16. [x] Deut. 6:6-9. Gen. 18:17,19. Ps. 78:5-7. [y] 1 Cor. 14:6,9,11,12,15,16,24,27,28.

Q. 157. How is the word of God to be read? A. The holy scriptures are to be read with an high and reverent esteem of them;[z] with a firm persuasion that they are the very word of God,[a] and that he only can enable us to understand them;[b] with desire to know, believe, and obey the will of God revealed in them;[c] with diligence,[d] and attention to the matter and scope of them;[e] with meditation,[f] application,[g] self-denial,[h] and prayer.[i]

[z] Ps. 19:10. Neh. 8:3-10. Exod. 24:7. 2 Chron. 34:27. Isa. 66:2. [a] 2 Pet. 1:19-21. [b] Luke 24:45. 2 Cor. 3:13-16. [c] Deut. 17:10,20. [d] Acts 17:11. [e] Acts 8:30,34. Luke 10:26-28. [f] Ps. 1:2. Ps. 119:97. [g] 2 Chron. 34:21. [h] Prov. 3:5. Deut. 33:3. [i] Prov. 2:1-6. Ps. 119:18. Neh. 7:6,8.

Q. 158. By whom is the word of God to be preached? A. The word of God is to be preached only by such as are sufficiently gifted,[k] and also duly approved and called to that office.[l]

[k] 1 Tim. 3:2,6. Eph. 4:8,9-11. Hos. 4:6. Mal. 2:7. 2 Cor. 3:6. [l] Jer. 14:15. Rom. 10:15. Heb. 5:4. 1 Cor. 12:28,29. 1 Tim. 3:10. 1 Tim. 4:14. 1 Tim. 5:22.

Q. 159. How is the word of God to be preached by those that are called thereunto? A. They that are called to labour in the ministry of the word, are to preach sound doctrine,[m] diligently,[n] in season and out of season;[o] plainly,[p] not in the enticing words of man’s wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit, and of power;[q] faithfully,[r] making known the whole counsel of God:[s] wisely,[t] applying themselves to the necessities and capacities of the hearers;[v] zealously,[w] with fervent love to God[x] and the souls of his people;[y] sincerely,[z] aiming at his glory,[a] and their conversion,[b] edification,[c] and salvation.[d]

[m] Tit. 2:1,8. [n] Acts 18:25. [o] 2 Tim. 4:2. [p] 1 Cor. 14:19. [q] 1 Cor. 2:4. [r] Jer. 23:28. 1 Cor. 4:1,2. [s] Acts 20:27. [t] Col. 1:28. 2 Tim. 2:15. [v] 1 Cor. 3:2. Heb. 5:12-14. Luke 12:42. [w] Acts 18:25. [x] 2 Cor. 5:13,14. Phil. 1:15-17. [y] Col. 4:12. 2 Cor. 12:15. [z] 2 Cor. 2:17. 2 Cor. 4:2. [a] 1 Thess. 2:4-6. John 7:18. [b] 1 Cor. 9:19-22. [c] 2 Cor. 12:19. Eph. 4:12. [d] 1 Tim. 4:16. Acts 26:16-18.

Q. 160. What is required of those that hear the word preached? A. It is required of those that hear the word preached that they attend upon it with diligence,[e] preparation,[f] and prayer;[g] examine what they hear by the scriptures;[h] receive the truth with faith,[i] love,[k] meekness,[l] and readiness of mind,[m] as the word of God;[n] meditate,[o] and confer of it;[p] hide it in their hearts,[q] and bring forth the fruit of it in their lives.[r]

[e] Prov. 8:34. [f] 1 Pet. 2:1,2. Luke 8:18. [g] Ps. 110:18. Eph. 6:18,19. [h] Acts 17:11. [i] Heb. 4:2. [k] 2 Thess. 2:10. [l] James 1:21. [m] Acts 17:11. [n] 1 Thess. 2:13. [o] Luke 9:44. Heb. 2:1. [p] Luke 24:14. Deut. 6:6,7. [q] Prov. 2:1. Ps. 119:11. [r] Luke 8:15. James 1:25.

Q. 161. How do the sacraments become effectual means of salvation? A. The sacraments become effectual means of salvation, not by any power in themselves, or any virtue derived from the piety or intention of him by whom they are administered, but only by the working of the Holy Ghost, and the blessing of Christ, by whom they are instituted.[s]

[s] 1 Pet. 3:21. Acts 8:13 compared with verse 23. 1 Cor. 3:6,7. 1 Cor. 12:13.

Q. 162. What is a sacrament? A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ in his church,[t] to signify, seal, and exhibit[v] unto those that are within the covenant of grace,[w] the benefits of his mediation;[x] to strengthen and incr